Poultry

Poultry Farming

<

What is Poultry?

In Poultry farming, the term Poultry specifies the variety of bird species. The birds come under poultry are chicken, duck, guinea fowl, turkey, geese, ostrich, pigeon, quail, etc. Basically, Poultry is mainly known for Chicken.

Poultry Farming overview

Poultry farming is the procedure of raising birds (both layer and broiler) for egg and Chicken meat, by people in the shed or in the backyard. As a result, The Broilers intake of feed is comparatively less while it gives more amount of food for us.

Poultry farming business gives rapid return or good profit to the farmers. It reduces poverty and generates employment. Poultry farming has made huge success in the last two decades in the World and converted from back yard poultry to full-fledged commercial poultry farming.

To get the maximum benefit from this farming proper training and knowledge of the breed, housing, feeding, management, etc are essential.

In other words, Poultry farming may be conducted as an exclusive business or side business. Generally Both rich and poor generate profit from this business according to their investment.

poultry farming complete information
Poultry Farming

Poultry farming as a business

It is one of the largest and fastest growing enterprises in the agriculture and livestock sector. Meanwhile, The Poultry and Poultry Products contribute a big share in every country economy. Poultry is the major source of protein from meat and eggs. In conclusion, People love to eat chicken in dinner and egg in breakfast it has all the nutrition properties in it.

A lot of entrepreneurs entering in poultry farming or in the poultry product business.

The consumption of chicken meat and Poultry Products are fastly increasing day by day in the whole world and it will increase more. However, it is also becoming clear that the requirement of chicken will be more according to the optimistic forecast. That’s why the poultry farming business is also growing because of the huge demand for chicken.

Poultry farming is an enterprise, a big margin profit can be generated from this business, of course, there is no limit or growth of this business. You can increase birds on your farm as much as possible.

Broiler poultry farming or Meat production

broiler poultry farming
Broiler poultry farm

Basically, Broiler poultry farming means raise chicken only for the purpose of meat production. This method is very popular and cost-effective. Broiler poultry farming has largely accepted by the small scale marginal farmer to large scale farmer or entrepreneur.

In this method a day old chicken raised in the farm of weight 30-40 gms to a weight over around 1 kg to 800 gms in 5 to 6 weeks only. Normally, The 1000 chicken can be easily manageable by small scale farmer and can earn profit in short duration of time.

Feed intake of broiler is very low while it produces the maximum amount of food for us.

Layer Poultry Farming or Egg production

poultry farming for egg is called layer farming
Layer poultry farming

The Layer poultry farming means raising egg-laying poultry birds for the purpose of egg production. Generally, Layer poultry is only for the egg. this layer birds or chicken are of special species of hens, and they are raised from when they are one day old.

Nowadays, Layer poultry farming is growing rapidly worldwide because of its lower production cost and gradually increasing demand for the egg. There is a lot of scope in layer poultry farming.

The layer poultry farming needs less capital investment compared to other livestock. Normally a small farmer can raise the number of chickens and start their business.

Generally, The hens start laying eggs from 20th weeks of age and continue laying eggs till 72 to 78th weeks of age after that it is sold for meat. Any small-scale farmer can start layer poultry farming business with 1000 birds or minimum cost.

Why poultry farming?

  • Poultry farm needed low initial investment as comparison to other livestock business.
  • Because of small body size less housing requirement and management.
  • Rearing period of one batch is only 35 days. The rapid return of investment in poultry farming.
  • The affordable price of meat and egg for the consumer.
  • Broilers have high FCR (feed conversion ratio or rate). Normally 2 to 2.3 kg of feed required for 1 kg of broiler meat.
  • 2 labors can easily handle 3000 chickens on one farm.
  • Poultry gives income throughout the year.
  • Small scale poultry farmer can easily start with 100-2000 chicks or in the backyard.
  • This business can grow as much as possible in a short period of time depends on how much you invested.
  • Water consumption of poultry is very low. Both drinking and cleaning requires less water, 1-liter water is enough for 5 birds for one day and for both drinking and cleaning.

Benefits of Poultry

  • Poultry farming is a very good opportunity for those who are looking for full time and part time business.
  • There is no need for marketing in the poultry business, because of huge demand wholesaler comes in farm and purchase. No need to go anywhere.
  • Egg and Chicken meat are the good source of lean protein and amino acids it contains less cholesterol as a comparison to other meat.
  • Chicken meat and egg are very good for health. It completes all the requirement of nutrition which the body needs.
  • The chicken meat is widely consumed locally and maybe export, it is cheapest than other meat, and its huge demand in the market every time. It is all time money for the farmer and can be sold easily.
  • Higher NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus & Potassium) in poultry manure as a comparison to other livestock manure. Use in organic farming as a fertilizer. One bird gives 100 gms of droppings every day with 60 % moisture. Gives extra income to the farmer.
  • Poultry feathers are also used in making pillows, curious and fancy article.

Poultry Farming Methods

Back yard extensive Poultry farming

backyard poultry
Backyard poultry farming

In backyard extensive system the hens kept in natural conditions allowed free range during the whole day and housed at night. Hens eat insects and earthworms, kitchen wastes, green grass in the backyard, the farmer gives them limited grains at morning and evening. This method is largely seen in rural areas.

Semi-intensive management Poultry Farming

This method is the combination of both extensive and intensive system. In this method, open fenced area for run and proper shed or housing are available for birds. The birds live the whole day in the fenced area and housed at night, this method is particularly common for the indigenous breed. The feed and water are available in the shed.

Intensive management Poultry Farming

This method is common and mostly used by farmers in India. This method is used for 1000 to 100000 birds at a time. All the birds live in the shed and all the requirement is fulfilled by their owner. Production rate is higher in this method. Maximum profit can earn from this method if doing in the right way. The intensive method is of two types :

1.Deep litter system

In the deep litter system, 2 to 4-inch layer of rice straw with wood shavings is spread on the floor. Birds laying in the shed all the time and all the requirement arranged in the shed. the shed should be well managed and ventilated.

The space requirement for birds is according to age. This is the most common method used in broiler poultry farming in India.

2. Battery Cage system

In this method, The birds are laying in the cage. This method is mostly used for egg in the layer poultry farm. In this method, The initial investment is more in comparison to other method and generally use for large scale commercial egg layer poultry enterprise.

Keep this knowledge before starting Poultry farm

Housing

housing aspects of broiler and layer poultry
Poultry House

The Housing plays a major role in the poultry business, the house protects birds from the unpleasant weather like excessive heat, high cold and from rains. it also protects from thieves, predator attack, cat, dog, and snacks. Housing also protects expensive feed from rats and mice.

  • The long axis of House should be in an east-west orientation.
  • It should be well ventilated or maintain the freshness in the farm.
  • Keep enough Feeders, waterers. and floor space according to flock strength.
  • Don’t overcrowd the birds on the farm.
  • Location of poultry farm should be away from public or residential areas.
  • The temperature in the shed should range between 20ºC to 24º C.
  • House should be clean and disinfected before the bird arrives on the farm.
  • Height of shed from center 12 ft, breadth of the shed 20 ft, side walls 1.5 ft, cemented floor, sufficient area gives comfort to the bird and easy to manage also gives high production and proper growth in the poultry farm.
  • In deep litter system or broiler, poultry Space requirement should be 1 sq ft  per bird.the following space requirement in both systems are as follows :
      House     Age Battery cage systemDeep litter system
Brooder House 0-8 weeks 0.5 sq ft per bird 0.7 sq ft per bird
Grower house 9-16 weeks 0.6 sq ft per bird 1 sq ft per bird
Layer house Above 17 weeks 0.7 sq ft per bird 2 sq ft per bird

Breed information

The breed is a class or group which shows its origin, variety,  physical feature such as body shape, it’s color of skin, its feathers, toes, standard body weight, egg shale color, production capacity,  use either its for meat or for layer.

There are so many breeds available but here we are pointing some main breeds.

Commercial broiler breeds:

vencobb broiler breed
Broiler breeds

This breed reared only for meat purpose. They give good quality meat with highest FCR (food conversion ratio).

  1. Colour broiler
  2. Hy-bro
  3. Vencobb
  4. Caribro
  5. Krishibro
  6. Babcobb
  7. Cobb

Commercial layer breeds

These breeds are good for Egg. Each breed gives more than 100 eggs in a year. Starts laying eggs in 20th weeks and gives up to 72 to 78th weeks. After that, they can be sold for meat.

  1. Kalinga brown
  2. Cari gold
  3. White Leghorn
  4. Colored layer

Dual purpose breed:

Dual purpose of breed is used for both meat and eggs.

  1. Rhode island
  2. Red vanraja
  3. Kuroiler dual
  4. Kalinga brown
  5. Plymouth Rock

Indian indigenous breed

  1. Kadaknath
  2. Aseel
  3. Naked neck
  4. Punjab brown
  5. Ankaleshwar
  6. Chittagong
  7. Tellicherry
  8. Nicobari

Poultry feed

feed guide of broiler
Poultry feed

In poultry farming, 70% of the cost is spent on the poultry feed. It is one of the most important parts of commercial poultry farming. The weight and health of the birds totally depend on the feed given by the owner. Low-quality feed or less nutritive feed causes many deficiency diseases and badly affect on the production of the birds.

The feed should always present in front of the birds all the time.

For better growth of birds all vitamins, minerals, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, etc should be present on the feed in the right quantity.

Body weight should be rapidly increases 30 to 40 gms per day per bird.

Types of feed

S.No. Feed Type Feed upto age
1. Pre-starter 0 – 10 days
2. Starter 11 -21 days
3. Finisher 22 – upto sale.

Poultry Disease

In broiler and layer farming birds are susceptible to a number of diseases so the prior vaccine is very much needed for the successful poultry farming. Without the vaccine, no one can succeed in this venture.

There are some major viral and bacterial disease in layer and broiler farming whose vaccine is available in the market.

  1. Marek’s disease
  2. New castle disease or Ranikhet Disease.
  3. Coccidiosis.
  4. Salmonellisis.
  5. Colibacillosis.
  6. Infectious bronchitis.
  7. Fowl Pox.
  8. Infectious coryza.

Vaccination schedule for broiler and layer farming

vaccination schedule
Poultry vaccination schedule

Broiler

In some countries New castle Disease also known from Ranikhet Disease.

S.No Age Name of Vaccine Route of vaccine
1. 1st day
Marek’s Disease Vaccine Subcutaneous
(Given at hatchery)
2.
5th -6th day

New Castle Disease
or Ranikhet disease (Lasota)
Intra ocular (eye drop)
or intra nasal
3.
7th -9th day

Infectious Bursal disease
(IBD)
Intra ocular
or Drinking Water
4.
16th -18th day
Infectious Bursal Disease
(IBD) Booster
Drinking Water
5.
24th -26th day
New Castle Disease
or Ranikhet (Lasota) Booster
Drinking Water

Layer

S.No     Age Name of Vaccine Route of Vaccine
1.1st day
Marek’s Disease Vaccine Subcutaneous
(Given at hatchery)
2.
5th – 6th day
New Castle Disease
or Ranikhet disease (Lasota)
Intra ocular(eye drop)
or intra nasal
3.
14th -16th day

Infectious Bursal disease
(IBD)
Intra ocular (eye drop)
or Drinking Water.
4.24th – 26th day
Infectious Bursal disease
(IBD) Booster
Intra ocular (eye drop)  
or Drinking Water
5.
30th day
New Castle Disease
or Ranikhet disease (Lasota) Booster
Intra ocular (eye drop)
or Drinking Water
6.
42th – 45th day

Fowl PoxIntra Muscular
7.
58th – 70th day
R2B/
(Mesoganic)
Subcutaneous
or Intra muscular
8.
115th– 119th day
New Castle Disease
or Ranikhet disease – (Lasota)
Drinking water.

Note: Dose of a vaccine depends on manufacturer to manufacturer.

Care & management in poultry farming

  • Maintain cleanliness, the shelter should be free from mosquitoes, flies, ticks, worms, seepage, rats and other insects.
  • Follow the proper vaccination schedule. The viral and bacterial disease in poultry is uncontrollable it can only be controlled by prior vaccination otherwise it can be converted into a huge loss.
  • Change the litter before the arrival of any batch also use sanitizers on the farm.
  • spread lime powder and disinfect the floor before the arrival of any batch.
  • Feeders and waterers should be clean every time.
  • The feed should be free from fungus and moisture. The quality feed gives quality results.
  • Pre Plan the management before summer, winter and rainy season.
  • Use effective micro-organism liquid (E.M) with water for better production rate.
  • Select the farm location at convenient transportation, availability of electricity, water, telephone, easy doctor availability.

Basic care and Management

  • A comfortable temperature for the bird ranges in 18ºC to  22ºC.
  • Provide cooling during hot weather, and heating during cold weather.
  • Overcrowding in the farm leads to viral and bacterial disease in poultry.
  • During extreme summer months, consumption of feed by poultry is less which results slowly in weight gain that time decrease the energy level and increase proteins, vitamins, and minerals.
  • Gives them cold water during extreme summer months.
  • Avoid incoming of water in the shed during the rainy season.

Temperature

  • A normal body temperature of birds ranges from 105℉ to 107℉ or 41ºC to 42ºC.
  • The comfort of birds describes their temperature If the birds are moving or eating in the shed than their temperature is okay if they are resting at the same position then there is a sign of abnormal temperature.
  • Temperature can be measured by thermometer or temperature sensor.
  • The recommended temperature in the shed for layer farming is 20ºC – 24ºC.

Poultry Economics

The poultry sector alone contributes 79889 crores (2015-2016) annually to the national economy of India. 63900 crores from the organized commercial sector and 15900 crores from unorganized sector like backyard poultry.

India ranks 5th largest meat producer and 3rd largest egg producer in the world. India ranks 2nd largest poultry industry in the world.

The broiler production is approximately 4.4 MT (Million tons) in 2017. Increases 7 percent in comparison to 2016 because of the huge demand for chicken meat.

The per capita consumption of broiler meat in India is quite lower than the developing countries. In India per person per year eats 3.2 kg, compared to 44 kg brazil, 43 kg united states, 32 kg south Africa, 30 kg in Canada. And it is increasing continuously. Approximately 50 eggs per person per year consumption in India.

Record keeping

Record keeping is the key part of a successful business. It is important in both layer and broiler poultry farming. It can track the records and improve the performance for the next. The record helps in measuring profit, operation management,  help in loans and income tax returns.

  • Keep a record of the date when you started the new batch.
  • Do Keep vaccination and medicines record.
  • Keep the death record of chicks and remove it from the flock as soon as possible.
  • Weight: Select 10 percent, 100 out of thousand and weight them. Divide the birds weight to the number of bird weighted you will get the average bird weight. every week weight record is important to calculate FCR.
  • Calculate FCR,
  • Record mortality,

How to calculate FCR?

Example: a farmer produces 500 kg of chicken in 5 weeks the birds consumed 1100 kg feed. What is the FCR?

solution:

FCR = Total consumption of feed (kg)/Total weight of chicken (kg)

FCR = 1100/500

= 2.2

The FCR = 2.2 KG

                     So, It took 2.2 kg of feed to produce  1kg of meat.

Marketing

There is no need for high-class marketing in poultry business because of its huge demand. The traders come in farm and purchase a full batch of birds. But for the basic knowledge marketing is important for beginners.

  • Lot of farmers sale them to trader according to live weight of birds. Trader comes at farm and purchase and they give payment to the farmer in 1 week.
  • Open a shop in the market and sale directly to the consumer Is the best option and gives maximum profit.

Conclusion

Poultry farming is a profitable business. The growth rate and consumption rate of the last two decades showing the immense scope in this sector. A farmer can earn a very good profit if they follow the proper vaccination schedule, hygiene management, temperature management in the shed, balanced feed, etc.

There is not any limit to this business. The farmer can enhance as much as possible according to their capital investment. Banks are always ready to finance, the government supports the development of this business for enhancing the income of small and marginal rural farmers.

Tips for the beginners

  • Before starting poultry farm get proper training, or visit some top poultry farms near your place.
  • Don’t spend too much money on the shed or house of poultry in the beginning or start with few birds after you get experience then add birds according to need
  • Vaccination is the key part of poultry, follow proper vaccination schedule to get maximum output.
  • Choose the right breed or quality chicks, don’t consider in quality if you have to pay 1 rupee more.
  • Know the FCR of the batch and keep a record of it.

24 thoughts on “Poultry Farming”

  1. you covered all the information regarding poultry farming. this will be the best information for my poultry business. i will start this business soon and this article help me in the future. thank

    Reply

Leave a Comment