Goats play an important role in agriculture all over the world especially in subsistent agriculture of developing countries where over 90% of the world goat population is raised. Recently a quick growth has seen in the commercial goat farming sector, This sector has a great opportunity for youth entrepreneurs and farmers.
The Poor man’s cow goat has tremendous potential to be projected as Future animal of
- The initial investment to start commercial goat farming is low as compared to other livestock farming.
- Goats are more economical than sheep on free-range grazing under semi-arid conditions.
- Goat creates employment for the poor besides effectively utilizing unpaid family labor.
- There is ample scope for establishing goat milk and meat products.
- Goats are valuable assets for families and communities around the world.
- Goats are friendly animals and enjoy being with the people.
- In drought-prone areas risk of commercial goat farming is very much less as compared to other livestock.
- Unlike large animals, in commercial farm conditions, both male and female goats have equal value.
- Due to small size and docile nature, housing requirements and manage mental problems with goats are less.
- Goat is prolific breeders and achieves sexual maturity at the age of 10-12 months, the gestation period is short and at the age of 16 months, it starts giving milk. Twinning is very common and triplets and quadruplets are low.
- Goats often have 2 crops in 14 months
- The goat meat is leaner (low cholesterol) and relatively good for people who prefer a low energy diet, especially in summer.
- Slaughter and dressing operation and meat disposal can be carried without many environmental problems.
- No religious taboo against goat slaughter and meat consumption prevalent in the country.
- Goat milk is easy to digest than cow milk because of small fat globules and is naturally homogenized.
- Goat milk is said to play a role in improving appetite and digestive efficiency.
- Goat milk is non-allergic as compared to cow milk and it has antifungal and antibacterial properties and can be used for treating a urogenital disease of fungal origin.
- Goats are termed as a moving refrigerator for the storage of milk and can be milked number of times in a day.
- Goats can supply a family with plenty of milk each day important nutrition for undernourished children.
- Extra milk can be made into paneer.
- More manure is a good fertilizer for agricultural land.
- With their earning from goat keeping, families can afford food, education and health care. In recent years, due to ongoing problems with avian flu, poultry production has become increasingly difficult for the farmers and more attention has therefore been paid to commercial goat farming.
Goat farming Shed Design important Points for Commercial Goat farming
It is generally believed that goats do not require housing. In fact like other domestic animals, the goat also needs shelter for protection from inclement weather such as rains, peak cold days during winter, and excessive heat load during summer.
Separate Housing arrangements for different categories of animals like growers, pregnant females, lactating females, breeding males, etc are to be ensured for feeding them as per requirement.
Goats can tolerate a wide range of temperatures but should be protected from wind and rain. However, a long period of high ambient temperatures inhibits reproduction.
A sheltered area and a big open yard available at low cost are most common.
Typically goat houses in the humid tropics are characterised by slatted floors raised above the ground and space boarding on the sidewalls to promote good ventilation, easiness of cleaning and better parasitic control.
In winter the warmest part of the house should be should be reserved for young animals.
Avoidance of overcrowding and well drained and clean floors and yard may be very important.
Housing requirement for commercial goat farming
The commercial goat farmers are generally advised to follow this minimum requirement for constructing the type of shelters needed for goats under their location and socio-economic conditions rather than investing more than 70% of the available funds in constructing permanent shelters and thereafter facing financial crisis in running the farm.
After gaining practical experience of 2-3 years in rearing goats on a smaller scale, Goat farmers are suggested to expand their flock size for sustaining the existence of goat farms on the long run.
Important Facts in Housing requirement
Orientation of shed: sheds with the long axis running East-west direction with generous provision for ventilation/air movement to help dry up threshed will be most suitable.
Length: No restriction on length. You can expand according to your need or number of animals you are planning for.
Breadth: Normally between 20 to 25 ft is considered best.
Wall: 3 to 3.5 ft above ground on long side and upto roof on width side of shed.
Wall and roof height: 10 ft at eaves and 12 ft at centre.
Overhang of roof: 3 ft
Roof Type: thatch roof, corrugated asbestos, cement sheet or galvanized iron sheets, and any other alternative roofing material, usage depends on fund available and weather conditions.
Shelter surrounding: maintain the green vegetation and greenery all around the shed adjacent to the goat shelters. Hedges and shrubs planted at a distance of 2 m from the building and their height should be below the height of the opening for ventilation but toward the west side height. Creepers over the roof shall be tried.
Floor type: clay or soil floor in regions with predominant hot dry climate and slatted floors for hot humid predominant weather conditions.
Open paddocs(open area): on one side of shed, if space constraints exit or on both side.
Bedding: locally available 2 to 4 inches soft dry grasses unsuitable for feeding shall be used especially for 0 to 3 months old kids and milking does.
In Hot dry season: 70% of floor area should be open
Hot Humid : loger side should be kept totally open
Cool: 2-10% of floor area or provide flexible ventilation that is Maximum between 10 am to 4 pm and closing the ventilation space between 4 pm to 10 am.
Feeding of goats in commercial goat farming
Apart from providing supplementary income to marginal farmers, in recent years commercial goat farming has emerged as a tool to provide substantial income to progressive farmers in the peri-urban region of the country.
Goats should be fed according to their psychological status of production. The nutrient requirement is different for different categories of animals and some extra nutrients required depending upon the production requirement.
Feeding to kids
Feeding kids is of prime importance to fetch the profit from commercial goat farming. Proper feeding will reduce the kid mortality as well as animals will attain proper slaughter weight.
Kid feeding is different from the adult goats the rumen: a site of microbial fiber digestion in ruminants is not well developed in kids. Their feeding is similar to the simple stomach animals but feeding is designed to help in the development of the rumen microbial system along with the proper growth of the kids.
Colostrum is the first milk produced after parturition. Colostrum is also high in nutrient value, especially vitamin A, B Vitamins, Proteins(immunoglobulins), and minerals. The protein content of colostrum is about 20% as compared to 3.5% for normal milk. Antibodies (immunoglobulins) are proteins that help the goat kid fight disease.
Colostrum should be ingested or bottle-fed in case of weak kids as soon as kids have a suckling reflex. In the case of extremely weak kids, they should be tube fed.
All newborn kids get colostrum soon after birth within the first hour after birth. Because the percentage of antibodies found in colostrum decreases rapidly after parturition.
Newborn kids should ingest 10% of their body weight in colostrum during the first 24 hours of life for optimum immunity.
Feeding schedule for kid from birth to weaning
|Age in Days||Milk||Concentrated Feed in Gm||Green fodder|
|4-14||350 ml (3 feedings)||–||–|
|15-30||350 ml (3 feedings)||A little||A little|
|31-60||400 ml (2 feeding)||100-150||Free choice|
|61-90||200 ml (2 feedings)||200-250||Free choice|
Feeding of Growing Goats (3-12 Months)
After weaning of kids, male and female animals are reared separately. Depending upon the land and pasture available they can be reared on grazing with supplementation or stall-fed system.
This will reduce the cost of production and farmers can get more benefits from goat production. For totally commercial Goat farming, concentrate feed along with leguminous straw and green fodder is a good option to rear growing goats for more economic returns,
The concentrated mixture feed can be formulated by mixing maize 57% ground nut cake 20% wheat bran 20% mineral mixture 2% and salt 1%.
Normally growing goats of 4-12 months of age consume dry matter equal to 4% of their body weight. The ration of goat should provide 12-14% of crude protein and 60-65% total digestible nutrients.
Feeding of kid in this way will reduce the kid’s mortality and the animal can attain their proper growth.
Feeding of Goat for milk production
Goat milk is praised for its high nutritive value with medicinal properties. A well-managed goat may produce as much milk at less cost than the ordinary cow.
The average milk yield of non-descript goats is 60 liters per lactation of 120 days. The Goat breeds like Jamunapari, Beetal, and Jakhrana can produce 200 – 250 liters of milk in the lactation period of 120 days.
To exploit the full genetic potential of any goat proper and well-balanced nutrition is required. Dairy goats are good eaters and can consume from 4 to 6% per 100 kg of body weight.
- Feed young animal Enough energy for growth, and feed a mature animal enough to maintain fairly constant body weight.
- Provide enough protein, minerals, and vitamins in a balanced feeding program to maintain a healthy animal.
- Offer does enough extra food during gestation and lactation for fetus development and milk production.
Feeding of Bucks
Mature bucks can obtain most of their nutrients from good pasture. However, growing bucks have greater nutrients since they are still growing. Bucks need to be in good body condition,.
Whenever bucks cannot meet nutrition from pasture supplemental nutrition needed for the buck to achieve the desired body condition. Supplementation with the concentrated mixture at the rate of 0.5 to 1.0 percent of body weight will be adequate.
The mineral mixture should always be given to the Breeding buck. This will improve the semen quality of the bucks and also maintain their reproductive efficiency.
Goat Disease and Treatment should follow in commercial Goat Farming
A number of viral, bacterial fungal and parasitic diseases cause heavy morbidity and mortality amongst goats resulting in huge economic losses to the goat farming community. These diseases are collectively known as infectious diseases.
We will describe various aspects of the important viral and bacterial goat disease.
Peste des petits ruminants (PPR)
It is also known as goat plague. PPR is an acute and fatal disease of Goats caused by the morbillivirus of the family Praramyxoviridae.
It is clinically similar to rinderpest in cattle but respiratory signs and pneumonia are prominent features in goats. Fever, Nasal and lacrimal discharge, depression, thirst, anorexia and rough hair coat and dry muzzle are common symptoms of this disease.
An erosive lesion may be found inside the mouth on the cheeks, lips, gums, and tongue. Coughing and sneezing are prominent signs at this time. There is no specific treatment against PPR.
To prevent the occurrence of the disease, vaccination of kids at the age of 3 months with a PPR vaccine is required. The vaccine provides immunity for 3 years. In established commercial goat farms the introduction of new goats must be done only after PPR vaccination.
goat Pox is a highly contagious viral disease of goats characterized by fever, generalized papules or nodules, internal lesion. It is caused by Capripox virus of the family poxviridae.
In India, goat pox is frequently observed in West Bengal, Bihar, Chattisgarh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan, and the adjoining areas of these states.
Inhalation of aerosols, from acutely affected animal and direct contact through skin abrasion, is the natural means of transmission.
There is no specific treatment for the disease. Supportive therapy such as the administration of anti-inflammatory drugs and antibiotics could be useful. Quarantine and slaughter of diseased and contact animals must be recommended.
Vaccinate the kid with goat pox vaccine at 3 months of age, thereafter Booster dose one-month post-vaccination is recommended for prevention against the disease.
Foot and Mouth disease (FMD)
Foot and mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals including goats. FMD usually causes low mortality and high morbidity which leads to the extreme economic loss to the commercial goat farmers in India as well as in the world.
Lameness is the most important sign of goat FMD. other clinical sign includes oral lesions, dullness, inappetence, restlessness, increased heart and respiratory rates, shivering fiver, etc. pregnant goats may abort.
The administration of anti-inflammatory and antibiotics could be useful. Vaccination of kids with FMD vaccine at age of 3 months, thereafter Booster dose at 3-4 weeks post-vaccination and revaccination half-yearly intervals is the only way to prevent the incidence of this disease.
This Disease is also called Pulpy kidney or overeating disease and caused by gram-negative anaerobic bacterium clostridium Perfringes Type D that is normally present in the ruminant digestive tract, generally in low numbers.
Overeating on concentrates or lush pasture and sudden change in the feed from poor to carbohydrates rich diet or lush pasture are the predisposing factors for the occurrence of the disease.
The clinical sign includes a sudden loss in appetite, profound depression, marked abdominal discomfort manifested by arching of the back and kicking at the belly, continuous changing of sitting posture, loud and painful screaming, chamind of jaws, fever watery diarrhea are common symptoms of ET disease.
Immunization of susceptible goats with the killed ET vaccine is done in 3-month-old kids given at the rate of 2ml subcutaneously and repeated after 3 weeks initially. Thereafter semi-annually. Strict and proper sanitation of the shed, timely enterotoxaemia, and no sudden change in the feed are important preventive strategies of this disease.
Haemorrhagic septicaemia (HS)
It is also known as bacterial Pneumonia and it is caused by Pasteurella multocida. Previous viral infection, environmental stresses, weaning stress, transport stress, poor ventilation, overcrowding, parasitism, and malnutrition are common factors for the occurrence of the disease. Fever, nasal discharge, ocular discharge, anorexia, dyspnea, cough are the signs observed in the disease. HS vaccine is done in 3-month-old kids given at the rate of 2ml subcutaneously.
Goat Vaccination schedule Guide for Commercial Goat Farming
Goats are susceptible to a number of infectious diseases which cause huge economic loss to the goat farming community. The first and foremost measure to control and contain infectious diseases amongst goats is vaccination.
Timely vaccination reduces mortality and morbidity in goats leading to the increased production and reproduction performance of goats.
Vaccination has an important role to play in the responsible use of antibiotics in animal farms. Thus vaccination reduces various Expenditure of the goatery leading to increased profitability to the goat farmers. Following precautions should be noted prior to vaccination:
- Weak debilitated immunocompromised and infested goats should not be vaccinated.
- Goats in the advanced stage of pregnancy and kids below three months of age must not be vaccinated.
- Animals should be dewormed prior to vaccination.
- In the case of live vaccines, vaccination must not be done in the areas of particular disease outbreak and pregnant goats.
- Vaccines especially live ones should be checked for cold chains because these vaccines are very heat sensitive in nature.
- Vaccination should be taken only under the supervision of a registered veterinary practitioner.
- Fresh sterilized disposable syringes and needles should be used for every animal to avoid cross-contamination.
- The interval between two different vaccines should be kept at least 21 days.
Deworming of Goats
Parasites, mainly internal parasites are one of the biggest problems of organized commercial goat farming, in addition to significant morbidity and mortality, the parasites contribute to the poor growth and unthriftiness in the goats.
Hence, deworming is necessary for goats to prevent the infection caused by endoparasites. General preventive measures for internal parasites in goats include proper management of waste disposal, ration, and pastures. Dry and well-ventilated shelter, grazing above 3’’ from the ground, removal of the soil of the sheds at the intervals of 3-6 months.
There are certain precautions which are to be followed in case of deworming in goats:
- The dose of the drug should be accurate (fenbendazole is generally given @ 10 mg/kg to goats)
- The effectiveness of a dewormer should always be tested
- Deworming should be done alternately with drugs of different classes to prevent the emergence of resistant parasites.
In the case of organized goat farm deworming should be done twice a year, pre rainy season, or post rainy season. It can be done at the age of 3 months. Join the goat farming community
Dipping of Goats
It is done to prevent infestation caused by ectoparasites, and is applied before and after winter season. Following precaution are to be followed prior to dipping.
- The day of dipping must be sunny
- The animal must not be thirsty
- A weak and diseased animal should not be dipped.
- Best time for dipping is from 9 am to 11 am
- The animal above one month of age can be dipped
- Rotation of drugs should be done to prevent the emergence of drug resistance.
Economics of Goat Farming in India
- Goat farming in India or Goat sector Contributes Rs. 38,590 crore (8.41%) to value of output from the livestock sector (Rs. 459051 crores).
- Increase in annual rural employment from 3.2% to 4.2% over the years
- Goat population rise from 95 million in 1982 to 140 million in 2007 and slightly gone down to 135 million in 2012.
- Production of Chevon increased from 0.324 MMT in 1982 to 0.941 MMT in 2012-13. (Estimated annual value Rs 22,625 crore at current price)
- Production of goat milk increased from 1.07 million MT in 1982 to 4.95 million MT in 2012-13 (Estimated market value Rs 9564 crore)
- Skin production increased from 0.086 MMT in 1966 to 0.17 MMT in 2012-13 ( Rs.1491 crore)
Goat Farming Project cost
|Particulars||Specifications||Units (No)||Total (Rs.)|
|Cost of animals||Does& Male||50 & 2||212000|
|Depreciation @10% of fixed cost||31900|
|Interest on fixed capital @12%||38280|
|Total Fixed Cost||389180|
Shed – Made-up of local material. space required Does=12sq.ft Buck 20sq.ft and Kid 4sq.ft / animals
|Feed & Fodder Cost (@250 gram concentrate for 200 days for kids and adults)||79200|
|Veterinary expenses (Vaccination, Deworming, Treatment etc.)||6600|
|Interest on variable cost @12%||10296|
|Labour @ Rs.3000 for 12 months||36000|
|Total Variable Cost||132096|
|Goat farming Project Cost||521276|
Goat Farming Loan
The government spent 200 crores rupees every year in their financial budget for the development of the rural area and enhanced the farmer income. This 200 crores rupees provide through subsidy to farmers and entrepreneurs.
Anyone can take this subsidy. Goat farming loan is for everyone, to get the subsidy you have to take a loan from any of the banks all are equal. Bank sanctioned the loan under Integrated Development of Small Ruminants & rabbits (IDSRR).
Subsidy of goat farming loan is provided by NABARD (National agriculture Bank and Rural Development). This subsidy Provided on the basis of the caste system of India. THE General/OBC will get a 25 % subsidy and SC/ST/BPL card Holder get a 33% subsidy on bank Loan.
Aadhar card, Domicile certificate, caste certificate, Driving license if any, training certificate if any Goat farming project report is the required document to get a bank loan.
Goat Farming Training
If you know nothing about goat and goat farming then training is much needed for you. Goat farming training plays an important role in the success of your goat farming career. The Best goat farming training is Provided by Indus goat farming and training center which is located in Ujjain Madhya Pradesh. They teach all about goat farming from basic to how to treat a goat when your goat is sick.
They are very experienced and cover all about goat farming in their training. They also provide a training certificate that makes value and helps you to get a loan.
Why is Training Required ?
Generally, animals don’t speak, they show symptoms when they are sick. If you start without any knowledge then you can be at a loss to avoid this loss, Better take the goat farming training from experienced one to get all the knowledge.
In the worst-case scenario, a single goat cost 5000 to 60,000 (approx) and the training cost you 5000 rs. If you start the goat from 50 good quality goats, that cost you around 5 lakh rupees. If you take training and get knowledge or save a single goat than your training cost will be fulfilled.
Better to take training first and start a goat farm next.
Goat farming Profit
Profit depends on many factors like your management, Goat breed, Goat feed you purchasing from outside or growing your own, how many goats are you raising in your farm, how much labor available on your farm.
But simply I will share the most common example of goat farming profit with you, which will clear all your doubts and internally force you to start this business.
Example: suppose you invested in a single goat with two kids or pregnant goat. Probably a goat gives 2 kids in a single gestation (five months). We raised the goat for 14 months and get the 4 kids in two gestation period. Goat farming profit depends on the management of your feed.
We raised the first two kids for Eid purpose and another 2 kids sold to a butcher in six months of age, a per-day cost spent on a goat feed is approximately 12 rs per day.
Feed cost spent on Mother goat for (14 months = 420 days) & (12 rs feed cost)
420 x 12 = 5040 Rs
Feed cost spent on two goat kids for (12 months = 365 days) & (12rs feed cost) (2 kids)
365 x 12 x 2 = 8760 Rs
Feed cost spent on two goat kids for (5 months = 150 days) & (12 rs feed cost) (2 kids)
150 x 12 x 2 = 3400 Rs
Total cost spent on feed is = 17200 Rs
Now I have to sale all my goat’s kid then what money I will get
2 kids, I sold in 6 months in 5000 rs = 10000
2 goat I sold in Eid festival in 15000 rs = 30000
the money I got in my hand is 40000
What I spent on feed is 17200
therefore 40000-17200 = 22800 rs
Goat farming profit from one goat = 22800 Rs
If i raised 50 goats for 14 months. Then
then , 50 x 22800 = 1140000 (11 lakh 40 thousand).
Note: in this profit labour cost, medicine cost and mortality is not included. Your profit can be slightly up or down or depend upon male and female kids. We are getting a major revenue from Eid festival or on Eid only male goats are sold. So it may go slightly up or down but you will definitely make a good money for sure if you follow this secret. Some quality Eid goat can make you more than 15000 for you.