Generally, the animals don’t speak for the feed, we have to provide them quality feed for quality milk production. The feed is an important source for the animals to stay alive, Proper growth, and Milk production. In commercial Dairy farming, the Dairy feed should be packed with all the Nutrients like Protein, carbohydrate, vitamins, and Minerals for the good Health and High Production of Milk.
It is true that the Quality feed gives the Quality Results. The quality feed helps the cow to come on heat at the proper time.
In commercial Dairy farming, 60% of the total cost is only spent on Dairy Feeds.
there should be a proper arrangement of Feed trough in the Diary Housing
Required Nutrients in the Feed
Protein: Protein is essential for the muscles growth as well as in the production of milk. The proper protein in the diet of animals keeps them healthy and disease free.
Minerals: Minerals helps to maintain the water balance in the animal body also helps in bone growth and high production of milk. The whole minerals are not present in the feed that’s why we have to provide them from external sources and mix in the concentrates. The requirement of minerals is very much needed when animals are in stress.
Vitamins: there are many types of vitamins which helps in body functioning of animal. It helps in feed digestion and proper working of metabolism.
Water: Water should always present in front of animals. It helps in milk production. Milk contains 90% water
Energy: Energy is much needed in the feed for milk production. Energy is quite needed for daily routine(walking, eating, breath) of animals,
Types of Dairy Feed for The Cattle
There are three types of Dairy Feed required for the better performance by animals and we get the maximum output. The dairy feed should contain 80% Forages and 20 % concentrates. To much concentrate can decrease the fat percentage of milk.
Provide 1.25 kg concentrated feed 20-30 kg green Fodder per 250 kg body weight for better results.
|Cattle’s age||Green Fodder||Dry Fodder||Concentrate Fodder|
|Calves (3-6 months)||3-5 Kg||1.5-2 Kg||1-1.5 Kg|
|Young calves (6-12 months)||4-6 Kg||1.5-2.5 Kg||1.5-1.75 Kg|
|Cows Adults more than 12 Months||20-30 Kg||2.5-3 Kg||1.5-2 Kg|
The consumption of feed Differs from Breed to Breed.
Green forages is important for the cattle. The cattle’s loves to eat fresh green forages once in a day. The Green forages contain Energy, Crude protein, Crude fiber. There are 80 % moisture and 60 to 70 % digestible nutrients in green forages.
The fresh chopped green fodder is good for cattle’s health and it is easily digestible. The green forages should be as much as possible in the whole day diet of cattle’s to get the maximum production.
Some important Green forages good for Cattle –
Cowpea, Sorghum, Pearl millet, Moringa or oliefera, Lucerne (alfa alfa), HedgeLucerne, maize grass, cowpea, , Napier grass or Elephant grass), Guinea, Beffel grass, Marvel grass, Sewan grass, cluster bean, fenugreek Grass,
The green forages should contain high leaves and fewer stems. The stem should be soft or the color should be dark green.
- Maize Fodder – 9 to 10% crude protein and 70% Moisture
- Sorghum – 6 to 7% crude protein 70% Moisture
- Cowpea – 16 to 18% crude protein and 60 to 70% Moisture
The Dry forages are packed with the nutrients in it. it contains approx 15 % moisture 85% Dry matter which is quite good for the milk production as well as the health of cattle’s.
- Hay – the green crops cut, and make the bundle and stored for many days to reduce the moisture of crops. There are set time to cut the grass. Forage can be stored for forage less days
- Stover – Stover is the mature cured stalks of the grains crops
- Silage – silage is like the pickle for the cattle’s in which the green grass chopped mixes with the mineral mixture and salt and stored in the packed in the airtight plastic and use according to the daily requirement of the animal and again packed tightly.
- Straw –a large amount of forages store to utilize as a cattle feed.
Concentrates should be in the diet of cattle’s every day according to body weight animals. It provides energy to the animals. The extra amount of concentrates should be provided to the lactating cows. All the needed nutrients are available in the concentrates which are not enough available in forages.
Concentrate provides an adequate amount of protein, carbohydrates, and fats to cattle. Give concentrates according to body weight, don’t give to much. It should be uncooked or un-boiled. Don’t dilute with water.
How to make the Concentrates
|Ingredients||Weight in Kg|
Important thing of Feeding Management
- Forages should always present in front of the animal.
- The concentrate should mix with the forages. To much concentrate is not good for the health of the cows, it can decrease the fat percentage of cows milk.
- More the green and Dry forages they consume, the production of milk will be more.
- Provide clean and fresh water in the water trough. Water trough should be clean in every 2 to 3 days.
- The mineral block should always present in the pen of cattle’s. they lick when they need.
Milk Lactation & feed intake cycle of cows throughout the year
- The Violet Line is of Milk Production up to 305 days.
- The dry period is of 2 months.
- Red line is of Dry Matter intake throughout the year.
- Blue line shows the fluctuation of body weight of cow throughout the year
Early Lactation (0-70Days)
Lactation starts when the calf is born. The early lactation is of 0 to 70 days in which the milk production is at high. In the mid of early lactation, the milk production is at peak level. The 18% crude protein of Dry mater is required in the Early lactation. If the feed doesn’t meet according to the requirement than milk production reduces and cows use reserved fat of the body and weight reduces.
Mid lactation (70-200 Days)
Mid lactation is of 70 to 200 days in which the milk production starts decreasing. The requirement of dry matter is at peak level in the starting of mid lactation and the weight also starts increasing. The 16 % crude protein of dry mater is required in the Mid lactation. In mid lactation period, the cow comes in heat and this is the time of insemination in the start of mid lactation. The cow should be inseminated before 140 days of mid lactation.
Late Lactation (200-305 Days)
Late lactation is of 200 to 305 days in which the milk production continuously decreases every week and reached to lowest till 305 days. The dry matter feed intake also decreases. The cow is pregnant so body weight increases. The 14 % crude protein of dry mater is required.
Dry Period (305-365 Days)
The dry period is of 305 to 365 days in which there is no milk production, weight increases, and dry matter feed intake decreases. The cow is pregnant and calcium and phosphorus are required more in this two months period.
there is the only way to get the maximum production from the cows that is to provide them quality feed according to their Lactation period. Do Proper care of Calf, Heifer, and bull provide them good feed they make the same value as Cows they are the future of the farm. A nutrients packed feed makes the animal healthy and Disease free.