There are many factors that contribute to mortality in neonatal kids. Diarrhea in goat kid is the single major cause of death in neonatal kids. Diarrhea in animal caused by Bacteria (Escherichia coli, salmonella, clostridium perfringens, Yersinia), Virus ( Rotavirus, Coronavirus, adenovirus, Herpes virus, Morbillivirus) and Parasites ( Cryptosporidium, Eimeria, Entamoeba, Giardia, Strongyloides, Trichostronylus, Amphistomes)
The four major causes of Diarrhea in the kids during the first month of life are Colibacillosis, rotavirus infection, salmonellosis, and cryptosporidiosis. Out of them, colibacillosis (E Coli scours) is the most common bacterial diarrhea while in the viral agent’s Rotavirus is the most common.
Cryptosporidium is the main culprit in the parasitic agent associated with diarrhea in neonatal kids.
Despite improvements in management practices and prevention treatment strategies, diarrhea is still the most common and the most costly disease in goats, affecting neonatal small ruminants.
Indiscriminate use of antibiotics is making bacterial agents resistant to common antibiotics. Apart from antibiotic resistance, there is little or no time to figure out acute forms of colibacillosis as well as rotavirus infection and to take steps to save the kids.
3 factors of Diarrhea in newborn goat kid
#1 Kid Factor
Infectious disease and parasitic disease: colibacillosis (ETEC E Coli), PPR, salmonellosis, Pneumonia, Rotavirus, FMD, clostridium perfringens, contagious ecthyma, Tetanus, cryptosporidium parvum, coccidiosis, Moniziasis.
Non-infectious cause: Low Birth weight, premature birth, Hypothermia, and hypoglycemia syndrome, trace element deficiencies (Cu, Iodine, Se)
#2 Mother factor
Low milk production syndrome associated with metabolic disease (Hypocalcaemia, pregnancy toxaemia), Mastitis etc.
#3 Management Factor
Low colostrum or milk feeding, sanitation and hygiene, rearing practices, shelter management, Judicious and timely prophylactic measures, breeding management, Nutrition and feeding practices, etc.
Neonatal mortality is vital to the economic goat husbandry and is critical for the fast growth of small ruminants in the world. Several studies have shown that on an average 20% of the kids are lost every year. Based on this mortality rate, the estimated total deaths would be around 10-12 million of kids each year.
Diarrhea in goat kid by Colibacillosis
Diarrhea particularly during the first few weeks after birth is an important ailment that is responsible for high mortality in neonates of most animal species.
Diarrhea is documented as a very frequent cause of kid mortality throughout the world. Colibacillosis is a disease of very young animals usually 2-10 days old. The bacterium Escherichia coli (E.coli) is an important causative agent.
This is common inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract in both non-pathogenic and pathogenic forms. Pathogenic serotype, however, some of these are capable of gaining entrance to the body (septicemic from) through the intestinal wall, others remain in the intestinal tract and liberate a toxin which is absorbed by the body and cause generalized disease and diarrhea entheogenic form.
The common signs are anorexia, loss or decreased appetite, off feed, bloody stools, feces, hematochezia, ataxia, incoordination, staggering, falling, dehydration, fever, etc.
There are a number of Escherichia coli strains that have been identified and characterized in animals.
Colibacillosis is managed by administration of antibiotics preferably both oral and systemic, rehydration therapy, prebiotic and probiotic therapy, hygienic drinking water supply, environmental sanitation, etc.
Diarrhea in goat kid by Salmonellosis
Most species of the genus salmonella are capable of producing diarrhea in goat kid but salmonella typhimurium is the most common serovar of the genus. In salmonellosis, the kids less than 1 week of age are more likely to die without clinical signs, whereas animals older than one week of age are more likely to have diarrhea. This can be damaged by antibiotics. The bacteria salmonella have thousands of serotypes and all can potentially cause diarrhea in animals. Vaccination has not been thoroughly evaluated in sheep and goats.
Diarrhea in goat Kid by Cryptosporidiosis
cryptosporidiosis, caused by cryptosporidium parvum is primarily a disease of lambs and kids less than 30 days of age and is usually a milder disease than coccidiosis. Infective oocysts are passed in feces and are transmitted by oral ingestion. Duration of diarrhea in goats tends to be a few days longer than is seen in diarrhea caused by rotavirus, coronavirus, or enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.
Feces are yellow or pale, watery, and contain mucus. In most cases, diarrhea is self-limiting after several days.
Paromycin sulfate 100 mg/kg for 11 days from the second day of age proves successful in preventing natural disease in a controlled clinical field trial in goat kids.
Diarrhea in Goat kid by Rotavirus and coronavirus gastroenteritis
Lambs and kids are infected with a group of B rotavirus, whereas most other animals and humans have infected with group A rotavirus. This virus generally causes diarrhea in goat kids 2 to 14 days of age.
Young animals become very depressed and dehydrated. Treatment with supportive care. Vaccinating ewes and does with bovine rotavirus and coronavirus vaccine before they give birth will increase passive immunity. Generally, viruses tend to less a cause of diarrhea in lambs and kids than calves.
Diarrhea in Goat kid by clostridium perfringens
Enterotoxaemia can kill goats and sheep of all ages but usually kills only those that consume high levels of carbohydrates. Clostridium perfringens type D. one type of bacteria that causes enterotoxemia, is most prevalent associated with sudden death, occasional pushing and staggering, apparent blindness in growing kids.
Clostridium perfringens type C causes a type of enterotoxemia that usually is accompanied by bloody scours.Mortality may be high. It usually occurs among fast gaining kids during the first three weeks. Pregnant goats vaccinated three four weeks before kidding provide antibody protection in their milk.
Soda bicarbonate french is effective. For an outbreak, vaccinate with type D toxoid on day 1 and gain 12 -14 days later, de-worm and reduce grain until the vaccine takes effect.
Prior vaccination and treatment is better than cure in case of diarrhea in goats kids. The colostrum feeding on time provides immunity and generates antibodies in kids. Sanitation around new born kids also plays a major role in neonatal diarrhea in kids, do all this thing we discussed above helps you manage the health and survival of goat kids.