goat farming complete guide to become successful goat farmer

Goat Farming

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Goat farming is one of the growing businesses all over the world because of the huge demand for its tasty meat. Now goat farming doesn’t remain goat farming it became an enterprise.

The goat is an important source of Meat, Milk, Skin, Fiber, and Manure. and Its milk also has all nutritional properties.

As a result, it is a profitable business if doing in the right way. Goat is a friendly animal with proper attention, they maintain good health and can be managed easily by a single woman or children.

Why goat farming?

  • Goat farming needed a low initial investment.
  • Less housing requirement and management problems.
  • Small body size, docile nature, high prolificacy, survives on low-grade ration and small gestation period are some important attributes of goat production.
  • Less risk in Livestock farming compared to other livestock species.
  • No religious restriction against goat slaughter and meat consumption.
  • The goat meat is leaner (low cholesterol) and relatively good for health.
  • normally the milk of goat is easy to digest because of the small size of fat globules and non-allergic.
  • it seems like a goat is more economical on free-range grazing under semiarid conditions.

Advantages of Goat farming

  • most of the countries goat meat is widely consumed locally and may be export. it is costlier than chicken and fish. Most importantly it has a huge demand in the market every time. therefore, It is all-time money for the farmer and can be sold easily.
  • Goat is a very good converter of poor roughages into high-value output i.e. meat, milk, and fiber.
  • the best-suited animal to varied climatic conditions
  • Goat starts production in 10 to 12 month of age its and Small gestation period is five months normally give two kids.
  • Fertilizer: contributes to crop production and farm fertility through the return of manure and urine
  • Goatskin is a very valuable product with high added value, especially in European markets.

Methods Of Goat farming

  • Extensive Management system firstly in this method goats go for grazing outside the area every day. normally 80% of rural farmers using this method and making a profit. Because of urban area development, this method is getting short day by day.
  • Semi-intensive Management system – In this method goat left open for grazing 4 to 5 hours every day. hence remaining time goat lives in farm and fed green and dry fodder.
  • Intensive management system or stall feeding method  – it is the commercial goat farming method and intensive management system also known as the stall feeding system. And In this method goats live in a particular area and not goes for grazing, particularly all green, dry and concentration fodder are arranged in the shed. and basically, a short walking area in the farm also arranged for goat in this method.
goat farming

”The greatness of a nation and its moral progress can be judged by the way its animals are treated”

Mahtama Gandhi

Goat housing Importance

firstly Goat requires shelter/housing for protection from inclement weather such as rains, excessive heat during summer and cold during winter in addition to protecting from predator attack.

  • Goat housing plays an important role in goat farming. Therefore, Start with minimal housing requirements and as the farm grows in size, after that add the sheds according to requirements.
  • Housing needs of a goat are minimal as compare to Dairy animals
  • consequently Run area should be Double the width of the covered area mainly depends on farm size.

The orientation of the long axis of the shed should always be in East-West direction in the plain region. also depends mainly on region to region.

Goat farming housing design
goat farming housing design direction

Goat breeds

As per 2012 livestock census, as a result, there are 13.53 crores of goats reared by farmers and majority of which are local or mixed type. Normally there are Number of recognized breeds of goats available in different regions which are given below.

in addition, the farmers can improve the productivity of the local goats by using the quality breeding bucks of these goat breeds based on their location and agro-climatic zone rather than introducing new breed from a different region.

List Of Goat breeds

State    Goats breeds available
AfricaBoer, Kalahari Red, Nigerian Dwarf, Pygmy
Great BritainAnglo Nubian
Central Anatolia RegionAngora
SyriaDamascus
SwitzerlandSannen
ToggenburgToggenburg
India Goat Bredd
GujaratGohilawadi, Mehsana, Kutchi, Surti, Zalawadi,Sojat .
Maharastra Osmanabadi, Sangamneri, Berari
Rajasthan Sirohi, Marwari, Jakhrana
Tamil Nadu Kanni adu, Kodi adu, Salem Black
Uttar Pradesh  Jamunapari. Barbari
Kerala Malabari, Attapady Black
Punjab Beetal
Odisha Ganjam
West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand Black Bengal
Uttarakhand Pantja
Himachal Pradesh Chegu, Gaddi
Jammu & Kashmir Changathangi, Chegu
Nagaland Sumi-ne
Goa Konkan Kanyal

Goat Feed

Quality feed to the goats always gives quality milk and meat. normally 50 to 60 % of the total cost spent on the goat feed it is one of the most important factors of commercial goat farming. therefore, the health of goat totally depends on its feed. Goats eat green fodder (plants), dry fodder and mainly concentration fodder (dana), etc.

In stall feeding farm. The fodder should be given according to the bodyweight of the goat or in other words, 10 % of the bodyweight per day. for Example, if your goat weight is 50 kg than they need 5 kg (Green, Dry and concentration fodder) in the whole day.

Concentration feed

concentration feed is the mixture of wheat, maize, rice bran, and soy cake or any cake, mineral mixture and salt, etc. however, the quantity of goat feed given according to age are as follows:

3 – 6   month  100 – 250 gm
6 – 9   month 250 – 350 gm
9 – 12  month 250 – 400 gm

Above all this quantity is only for concentration feed.

Green fodder

sorghum (jowar), bajra (pearl millet), Moringa, azola, subabool, Lucerne (alfa alfa), hedgeLucerne , maize grass, cowpea, berseem, Napier grass (elephant grass), Guinea, anjan grass (beffel grass), dinanath grass, marvel grass, sewan grass, guar (cluster bean), methi grass (fenugreek)  & tree leaves etc.

vaccination Program in Goat Farming

Goats are susceptible to a number of infectious diseases and which cause huge economic loss to the goat farming community.

off course Timely vaccination reduces mortality and morbidity in goats leading to the increased production and reproduction performance of goats.

Vaccination has an important role to play in the responsible use of antibiotics on animal farms.

Thus vaccination reduces various expenditures of the goatry leading to the increased profitability to the goat farmers. as a result, Vaccination is for savage of incoming goat diseases. 

vaccination schedule

Note: all Dose and Route may vary manufacturer to manufacturer, in addition, SC denotes the subcutaneous route

vaccination schedule in goat farming
vaccination schedule

Following precautions should be noted prior to vaccination:

  • this is to clarify that weak, debilitated, immune-compromised and infested goats should not be vaccinated always.
  • normally Goats in an advanced stage of pregnancy and kids below three months of age must not be vaccinated.
  • Vaccines especially live ones should be checked for the cold chain because these vaccines are very much heat sensitive in nature.
  • Fresh sterilized disposable syringes and needles equally important and should be used for every animal to avoid cross-contamination.

The interval between two different vaccines kept always 15 to 21 days.

goat vaccination route
vaccination route in goat body

Basics care and management for Goats

Basic care and management upto 3 months of age

  • The animal from day 1 of birth to 30th day should always be fed with mother goat milk only. especially The quantity of mother goat milk should be  10% of the body weight of the kid. For example, if the born kid weight is 5 kg then it should be fed with 500ml of mother milk in 4 times a day. 125 ml in one time. particularly Note that if fed 500 ml in time then there are chances of diarrhea.
  • The animal from day 30th to day 90th the food content should be soft green and dry fodder and grains (grain in powder form) and milk. similarly, The quantity of a mixture of all these should be 10 % of the body weight.
  • usually The animal above 90 days, the food composition should be green fodder, dry fodder, and concentration feed (grains) according to the weight of goat.

Above 3 months of age care and management

  • Above 3 months age kids separate male and female in the shed.
  • Normally the shed area should be clean and dry everyday
  • usually Add Neem leaves in fodder. because it has nutrition content in it, however, it also has antibacterial properties in it.
  • Change the soil in the shed twice in a year and spread the limestone powder in every month is equally important.
  • The drinking water should always be clean every day and available every time. 
  • The age of breeding buck should be normally 1.5 to 2 years for good productivity.
  • similarly, keep proper care and management of the pregnant goats and always keep them away from other goats.
  • always give extra 400 to 500 gm concentration feed (grains) to the pregnant goats.

Deworming of goats

Actually, Deworming is necessary for goats to prevent the infections caused by the endoparasites. Parasites contribute to the poor growth and unfitness in the goats.

General preventive measure for internal parasites in goats includes proper management of waste disposal, dry and well-ventilated shelter, removal of the soil in the sheds at the interval of  6 months.

There are certain precaution furthermore which are to be followed in case of deworming in goats:

  • certainly, the Dose of the drug should be accurate (fenbendazole is generally given 5 mg/kg but in case of goats, it is given 10 mg /kg
  • Rotation of the drug should be done to prevent the emergence of the drug resistance.
  • Always Deworming should be done alternately with drugs of different classes and brands to prevent the emergence of the resistant parasites.

In case of organized goat farms, Deworming in goats is done twice in a year: pre-rainy season and post-rainy season. in fact, It can be done at the age of three months.

Goat farming Profit Margin

the profit margin is high as compared to other livestock farming. the gestation period of the goat is less you can 4 kids in a single with 100 female goats or 4 male goats you can make easily a 4 lakh Profit. it is proved. Good money can make through goat farming.

A genuine goat breed that looks beautiful can make more money. if you want to do meat goat farming than this business is excellent because goat meat price increasing rapidly there is no fluctuation or downfall in it.

Artificial insemination in goats

Artificial insemination is the technique involving semen (sperm) collection from buck through the artificial vagina and transfer or deposit of semen (sperm) through a gun into the reproductive tract of the doe (female). It is differ from natural mating.

The technique is used to enhance the breed through fresh semen or commercially available frozen semen. This technique can also be used to convert non-breed into breed or improvement of the breed.

Advantages of artificial insemination in goats:

  • No need of keeping a large number of males on the farm, which reduces the cost of maintaining bucks.
  • It helps in genetic improvement.
  • The AI technique can be used to convert low quality indigenous breed into the high-quality breed. By injecting high-quality breed semen into a low-quality doe.
  • It helps in maintaining records of breeding and the number of does can be breeding in one day.
  • It reduces the risk of transferring disease and desired sex can be produced through sperm sexing.

Economics of commercial goat farming

India has the second largest goat population in the world. further Goat population rise from 95 million in 1982 to 140 million in 2007 but slightly gone down to 135 million in 2012. still country stood first in goat milk production second in goat meat production and second in goatskin production in the world.

As a results, the goat and its products contribute Rs 38590 crores annually to the national economy. Goat meat alone contributes about Rs 22000 crores annually. it is the economics of commercial goat farming. 2012 – 13.

Government of India continuously focusing on Goat farming Loan and giving the subsidy to enhance their Business.

This scientist Quit his job in the US to Start Goat farming, Now Earning in Lakhs

importance of Marketing in Goat farming Business

there is a huge demand for goat meat in India and goat is like an ATM. During festive times Holi, Bakrid, New year or any sacrificial occasion. consequently, the price of the animal gets very high, so try to sell the animal during this period. with this, in mind, India is Top goat meat exporter to the Gulf countries so there is no worry in the sale of the goats.

some basics of marketing

  • In order to get maximum returns from goat farming, consequently selling goats and its products to middleman should be avoided at any cost.
  • At any rate, the animal should be sold on the basis of body weight and probably not on the visual appraisal.
  • Normally Maximum profit can be obtained by selling the animal between 6-9 months of age in the small and medium-sized breed and 9-12 months of age in larger breeds.
  • What to sell? – Live goat (meat goat or breeding goats)
  • When to sell? – Eid, Dushara, Holi and Durga  Puja
  • Where to sell? – At farm or goat market.

Goat farming Training

Goat farming Training plays a major role for beginners. for this purpose, Training is a process of learning a sequence program behavior.

Develop adequate knowledge and information before starting. Most importantly training gives proper knowledge of goat vaccination schedule, Dipping, deworming schedule, what goat like to eat, basically mating and breeding cycle and finally how artificial insemination is done in goat, kid management, etc.

Record keeping in Goat farming

Record keeping is one of the most important parts of goat farming. The record can be kept in the excel sheet or on the paper. if you are going to starting a big commercial goat farm than it needs the proper management of the farm.

the record helps a goat farmer to keep stock and manage all the aspects in the farm properly. Records, which should be kept, include:

Mating records

These records include taking note of the female number, male number, when mated, when kidded and whether aborted or not. it will be helpful for the kid during milk feeding when a number of goats available on the farm. and the quality kid will be known by their parents and it will be helpful for the next mating.

Birth record

Record the date of birth, sex and weight of kid and doe at kidding, the weight of the kid at the birth time expect whether it will be used for the breeding purpose or for meat purpose. if you are using for meat purpose than you can castrate the kid in two months of age.

Deaths record

Record the date and cause of death if known. if the cause of death is known than be aware for the next time.

Sales record

Record the number of sales, costs, name of the buyer. it is also known as accounts of the farm. the farm account plays a vital role if you are going to be successful in your commercial farming business.

Health record

Keep a record of when the animals were vaccinated, dosed or given any other treatment. this record helps for repeating the vaccine again.

Goat farming Business Plan Sample Pdf

Here we are attaching the link below you can easily download the business plan sample of 100 female goats and 4 male goats. you can make money if you follow this plan. most of the Indian goat farmers following this plan and making good money.

Read: Goat farming project report and profit guide of (100+4) goats

Conclusion

in conclusion, Goat rearing can be a profitable or successful venture thus the health aspect of goats are taken effectively.

However, The major activities that should be applied are vaccination and deworming, secondly hygiene management, or weather shelter to protect from vagaries of climate and mainly clean drinking water, balanced feed and farm bio securities for effective health management.

5 tips for the Beginner Goat Farmers

  • Choose the right goat breed in the beginning. and start with fewer goats. once you get experience then add goats as much as u want to do. goat farming is easy, and it’s not rocket science.
  • get the proper training of goat farming before starting or visit some farms.
  • follow proper vaccination schedule and deworming schedule to get maximum profit
  • don’t spend too much money on the shed or house of goats in the beginning.
  • per day cost of feeding to the goats should not be more than 10 to 15 rupees.

”The only way to do great work is to love what you do”

Steve jobs

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