vaccination of poultry

Poultry Disease

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The Poultry Birds or chickens are susceptible to some infectious viral and bacterial disease. The success of the poultry farm totally depends on how you protect the birds from the diseases. It is the key part of the poultry farming that how to do prior treatment of the chickens.

The major disease in the Poultry can only be treated by prior vaccination.

Before starting a farm or raised chickens there should be proper knowledge of poultry disease otherwise it can cause a huge lose.

The disease in Poultry Farming can be controlled by proper Poultry Housing Management Sanitary condition or from providing Proper Poultry Feed packed with all the Vitamins and Minerals and Amino Acids.

Vaccination schedule of Broiler and Layer Farming

Prior vaccination is the necessary for the birds
Poultry Disease

Broiler

In some countries New castle disease also known from Ranikhet disease

S.No Age Name of Vaccine Route of vaccine
1. 1st day Marek’s Disease Vaccine Subcutaneous (Given at hatchery)
2. 5th -6th day New castle disease (Lasota) Intra ocular(eye drop) or intra nasal
3. 7th -9th day Infectious Bursal disease (IBD) Intra ocular or Drinking Water
4. 16th -18th day Infectious Bursal disease (IBD) Booster Drinking Water
5. 24th -26th day New Castle Disease – (Lasota) Booster Drinking Water

Layer

In some countries New castle disease also known from Ranikhet disease

S.No     Age Name of Vaccine Route of Vaccine
1. 1st day Marek’s Disease Vaccine Subcutaneous (Given at hatchery)
2. 5th – 6th day New castle disease (Lasota) Intra ocular(eye drop) or intra nasal
3. 14th -16th day Infectious Bursal disease (IBD) Intra ocular (eye drop)  or Drinking Water.
4. 24th – 26th day Infectious Bursal disease (IBD) Booster Intra ocular (eye drop)  or Drinking Water
5. 30th day New Castle disease (Lasota) Booster Intra ocular (eye drop)  or Drinking Water
6. 42th – 45th day Fowl Pox Intra Muscular
7. 58th – 70th day R2B Mesoganic Subcutaneous or Intra muscular
8. 115th – 119th day New castle Disease (Lasota) Drinking water.

Note: Dose of the vaccine depends on manufacturer to manufacturer.

intra ocular poultry vaccination route
intra ocular vaccine

Viral disease in Poultry farming

Marek’s disease

It is the most common disease in the poultry industry. Marek’s disease is a highly contagious viral disease which is caused by Gallid herpes virus2 (Gahv-2). This virus enters in the respiratory system of the chickens through DNA it damages the nerves system which causes the paralysis to the chickens.

This Disease rapidly spread bird to bird. High mortality has been seen from this Disease.

The Marek’s Disease vaccine mostly given at the hatchery to a day old chick.

Symptoms

  • Neck Paralysis
  • Blindness
  • Lymphoid tumors
  • Extended legs and lameness
  • Drooping wings

Treatment

Prior vaccination is the only treatment. Mostly chicks are susceptible to this disease that’s why this Vaccine is given to a day old chicks. Maintain a clean and hygienic environment is for better health after MD vaccine.

New castle disease or Ranikhet Disease

It is one of the most common diseases in the poultry industry. New castle disease is another contagious viral disease which is caused by the Paramoxy virus. this virus affects the respiratory system and nerves system ant it affects more in chicks than adults.

The vaccine used two to three times in the broiler farming and three to four times in the Layer farming. It disease transfer Bird to Bird and affect all the birds on the farm in a short time. Sometimes 100% Mortality occur from the New castle disease.

Symptoms

  • Greenish diarrhea
  • Depression
  • Thin shelled egg or decrease number of eggs.
  • Nasal Discharge
  • Swelling around eyes

Treatment

Before the vaccine, the chickens should be dewormed. Prior vaccination is better than cure.

A prior vaccine is the only treatment of this disease otherwise this disease can cause huge lose. F1 strain or R2B vaccine available worldwide against this disease. Clean, hygiene sanitation is required for the cure against this disease.

The vaccine should repeat at an interval of 3 weeks.

Vacciation schedule for the chickens.
Vaccination Schedule

Infectious Bronchitis

Infectious bronchitis is a highly contagious disease in poultry caused by Coronavirus. This virus germinates under the farm from the poor sanitary condition and spread from one bird to another or through the air. These diseases affect the respiratory tract or kidney of the birds.

Symptoms

  • Mucus infected respiratory tract in postmortem finding
  • Less egg production and poor egg shell
  • Poor growth
  • 30 to 40% mortality

Treatment

Antibiotic can be used to treat infectious Bronchitis. The disease can be prior control by the proper management of Housing sanitary condition and from quality Feed.

For the prevention of this disease protect the bird from the excessive weather condition.

Fowl Pox

it is the viral disease spread from one bird to another through direct contact or from Mosquitoes and bee. This disease is caused by Avipoxvirus which affect all the ages of birds. In this disease, the pox appears mainly around the eyes or in the whole skin. Fowlpox also spread from the unhygienic condition and poor cleanliness.

 Symptoms

  • Skin lesion
  • Difficult in breathing
  • Yellow cheesy patches
  • Poor weight gain and egg production

Treatment

The disease can be prevent from prior vaccination or proper sanitation on the farm. The affected bird should be burnt or buried away from the farm.

Parasitic disease in Poultry Farming

Coccidiosis

Coccidiosis is the internal parasite diseases which are caused by Protozoa in the intestine of the bird. Because of parasites in the intestine birds decrease the feed intake. The disesese affect more in chicks as compared to Adults. For the cure of this disease internal deworming is necessary in both egg and meat production birds.

Symptoms

  • Diarrhea or Bloody diarrhea in some cases
  • High mortality rate
  • Poor Growth and high FCR
  • Ruffled feather
  • Lesions in intestine

Treatment

The anti-coccidial Drug can be used in the feed to prevent the coccidiosis disease.the drug can be used in both feed or in water. Various anti-coccidial drug available worldwide like Amprolium, sulphonamide, salinomycin andmany more.

Coccidiosis can be controlled by proper management on the farm. The floor should be clean hygiene and disinfected all the time and proper litter system can be managed properly.  

Bacterial Disease in Poultry Farming

Salmonellisis

it is the common bacterial disease in the birds which is caused by Bacteria. These bacteria affect in both chicks and adults.

Symptoms

  • Sudden death
  • White or chalky diarrhea.
  • Weight loss

Treatment

The antibiotic drugs can be used in feed as well as in water for the cure of this disease.

Maintain dry, clean, hygiene and disinfected environment for the prevention of the disease.

Colybacillosis or E-coli

Colybacollosis is one of the common infectious bacterial diseases in the birds which is caused by Escherichia coli infection. These bacteria affect in both chicks and adults. This disease can be controlled from proper management in the farm like litter management, proper ventilation, nutritious feed

Symptoms

  • Dizziness
  • Diarrhea
  • Blood infection
  • Anxiety
  • Loss of appetite
  • Joint Swelling are common symptoms.

Treatment

It can be caused by overcrowding. The antibiotic drugs can be used in feed as well as in water for the cure of this disease.

The probiotic in the drinking water at the first week can control this disease.

Maintain dry, clean, hygiene and disinfected environment for the prevention of the disease.

Deworming

Deworming is one of the most important part of Poultry farming in which we clear the worms like tapeworms and roundworms from the intestine and digestive tract of the bird. Deworming matters in the growth of the birds and it increases the FCR and Egg production of the birds.

Deworming is very much needed before the vaccination

Symptoms of worms under the digestive tract of Birds

  • Weakness
  • Less growth
  • Less egg production
  • Anemia

Treatment

Deworming should be done every month in the Layer Poultry Farming for better production. Albendazole and fenbendazole are the dewormers available to treat the worms. It should be with drinking water for better results.

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